Holy Qurbana

Meaning of Holy Qurbana, symbolism and meaning behind the items used (holy altar, holy cross, candles, kasa, peelassa, marbahasa, dhupakutti, holy vestments etc.), the parts of HQ and what they symbolize (Ex- in the beginning of the service the deacon who holds the candle in front of the priest is symbolic of John the Baptist paving the way), Thooyobo; Liturgy of the Word; Liturgy of the Upper Room; Procession of the Holy Elements and Expression of Thankfulness, Post Communion; Preparation for Holy Qurbana for the faithful and Participation of the living and the departed

Teacher Training and Resources

Reference Materials

A reference is a referral to another's text or information and can refer to written sources (books, reports, articles), videos, Internet sites, images, etc. It can also refer to personal communication in the form of letters, e-mails or interviews. A reference is synonymous with a literary citation or citing a source.

The following materials are offered as sources for information and ideas but please remember to properly give credit if material is used in your writing! If you forget to use references, or your references are incomplete, your work can seem like an empty postulation or create suspicions of plagiarism.


  1. Malankara Orthodox Liturgy, by Fr. Baby Varghese (MOSC website)
  2. Eucharist, The Act of Love, by H.G. Paulos Mar Gregorios
  3. Theology and Eucharist, Fr. Alexander Schmemann
  4. Holy Qurbana, MOSC


  1. Holy Things for the Holy & Pure (Part I): The Preparatory Service, NEAD
  2. Holy Things for the Holy & Pure (Part II): The Liturgy of the Word, NEAD
  3. Holy Things for the Holy & Pure (Part III): Liturgy of the Faithful, NEAD


Book Excerpts

  1. Eucharistic Renewal (from "The Eucharist: Sacrament of the Kingdom Paperback" by Fr. Alexander Schmemann)
  2. St. Ephrem's Hymns

Other Resources

  1. Orthodox Resource Guide, Fr. Abey George (pages 80-90)
  2. A Devotional Study of the Holy Qurbana, HG Mathews Mar Barnabas
  3. In Spirit, In Truth, A Study of Orthodox Worship by Fr. Baby Varghese
  4. Notes on Holy Qurbana, By Rembachen Lazarus (shared with the St. Mary's Orthodox congregation, Calgary)


In order to help our children grow in the Orthodox Faith in North America, a decision was made to standardize all materials to the Orthodox Study Bible (DSWA Kalpana DSWA/C/016/2010, October 28, 2010). Please continue to pray and support the development of a fully approved translation based on the Peshitta, and our textbooks will educate on the various translations and historic development of Scripture.

  • [John 6:53-58]

    Then Jesus said to them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you have no life in you. Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For My flesh is food indeed,a and My blood is drink indeed. He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him. As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so he who feeds on Me will live because of Me. This is the bread which came down from heaven—not as your fathers ate the manna, and are dead. He who eats this bread will live forever.”

Liturgical Resources

The Ministry of Liturgical Resource Development (LRD) was created in July of 2015 (DSWA Kalpana DSWA/C/10/2015, July 24,2015) to promote the translation, versification, and publication of vital English liturgical resources. Today most of our Sacramental offices are available and the "Service Book of the Holy Qurbono" and "Shehimo: Book of Common Prayer" are available in print. Wherever possible references will be made using LRD resources given the easy access to these materials to the faithful in North America.

Holy Qurbono

Other Hymns

Other Prayers

Promion and Sedro

  • Great Friday - Morning Prayer Etro
Christ our God, we offer this fragrant incense to You and entreat Your loving kindness to make us worthy that with purity, we may celebrate the feast of the conclusion of the Old (Covenant) and the beginning of the New, and Your Holy Body and Your Innocent Blood be mixed with our souls, and it may be for the remission of all our transgressions, and for the rest of our faithful departed. We and they will offer You glory and praise and to Your Father."
  • Prayer done during the Fraction by St. Dionysius Bar Salibi
Thus truly the Word of God did suffer in flesh, and was sacrificed and broken on the Cross, and His soul separated from His Body, while His Godhead never separated neither from His Soul nor from His Body. And He was pieced in His side with a spear, and there flowed out of Him blood and water, the atonement of the whole world. And his Body was stained with them. And for the sin of the whole world, the Son died on the Cross, and His Soul came and united with His Body. And He turned us from the work of the left to that of the right. And by the Blood of His Person, He reconciled, united and combined the heavenly with the earthly, the people with the gentiles and the Soul with the Body. And on the third day, He rose from the tomb. One is Emmanuel, and cannot be divided into two natures after the indivisible unity. Thus we believe and thus we confess and thus we confirm that this Flesh is of this Blood and that this Blood is of this Flesh.


Patristic Quotes

  • [St. Philoxenus] "I carry you, living God, who is incarnate in the bread, and I embrace you in my palms, Lord of the worlds whom no world has contained."
  • [St. Ignatius of Antioch] "the Eucharist is the flesh of our Savior Jesus Christ, the flesh which suffered for our sins and which the Father in His graciousness raised from the dead."
  • [St. Justin Martyr] "For we do not receive these things as common bread or common drink; but as Jesus Christ our Savior being incarnate by God's Word took flesh and blood for our salvation, so also we have been taught that the food consecrated by the Word of prayer which comes from him, from which our flesh and blood are nourished by transformation, is the flesh and blood of that Incarnate Jesus."
  • [St. Irenaeus of Lyons] ".. the mixed cup and manufactured bread receive the Word of God and become the Eucharist, that is to say, Blood and Body of Christ, which fortify and build up the substance of our flesh ... When the bread from the earth receives the invocation of God, it is no longer common bread but Eucharist, having both an earthly and heavenly reality ... the bread and wine are the Body of the Lord and the cup of His Blood."
  • [St. Basil the Great] "The Lord clearly says, 'The man who eats My Flesh and drinks My Blood has eternal life.' Who then can doubt that to partake of this Life continually is really to have life in abundance?"
  • [St. Cyril of Jerusalem] "Without the Lord's flesh, it is impossible to live ... Let us share in the Body and Blood of Christ with complete conviction. The Body is given to you in the likeness of bread and the Blood is given in the likeness of wine, so that by sharing in the Body and Blood of Christ you may become one body and one blood with Christ."
  • [St. Ambrose of Milan] "Let you understand, therefore, that as often as the Sacrifice is offered, the death, Resurrection, and Ascension of our Lord is signified, and likewise the forgiveness of sins, and that this Bread which you receive is the Bread of eternal life, not daily bread."
  • [St. Cyril of Alexander] "Chris said indicating, 'This is My Body' and 'This is My Blood,' in order that you might not judge what you see to be a mere figure. The offerings by the hidden power of God Almighty, are changed into Christ's Body and Blood, and by receiving these we come to share in the life-giving and sanctifying efficacy of Christ."
  • [St. Philoxenos of Mabbug] "Make me worthy, Lord, to eat you in a holy manner and to taste the food of Your Body as a taste of Your Life."
  • [St. Severus of Antioch] "... it is Christ who still even now offers, and the power of his Divine Words perfects the things that they are provided so that they may become His Body and Blood"
  • [St. Severus of Antioch] ".. Christ completes it through the words uttered by the offerer and changes the bread into flesh and cup into blood by the power, inspiration, and grace of the Holy Spirit."
  • [Moses Bar Kepha] "The Holy Spirit descends upon the bread and wine on the altar and makes the the Body and Blood of God the Word."
  • [Dionysius Bar Salibi] "As by the will of the Father, by His Holy Spirit, the Word was incarnated from the Virgin without change, so by the will of the Father, by the overshadowing of the Holy Spirit, He perfects the bread as His Body and the wine as His Blood."
  • [St. Jacob of Serugh] "He broke the bread, and made it the Body, and gave to His Apostles; and the taste of the Body, wherein was life, was in their mouths ... They eat His Body, and He is reclining with them at the table; and they drink His Blood, and they hear the voice of His teaching"
  • [St. Gregory of Nyssa] “What then is this remedy? Nothing other than that glorious body which showed itself stronger than death and has become the source of life for us. Just as a little leaven, according to the Apostle’s words, is mixed with all the dough, so the body that was raised by God to immortality, once it is introduced into our body, wholly changes it and transforms it into his own substance…”
  • [St. Irenaeus] "The cup likewise, which is part of that creation to which we belong, He confessed to be His Blood, and taught the new oblation of the New Covenant; which the Church receiving from the apostles, offers to God throughout all the world"
  • [St. Jacob of Serugh] "The Lord Whom the seraphs fear to look at, the Same you behold in bread and wine on the altar. The lightning clothed hosts are burned if they see Him in His brilliance. Yet the contemptible dust partakes of Him with confidence."
  • [St. John of Kronstadt] "The Divine Liturgy is truly a heavenly service on earth, in which God Himself, in a particular, immediate and most close manner is present and dwells with men, for He Himself is the invisible celebrant of the service; He is both the Offerer and the Offering. There is on earth nothing higher, greater, more holy, than the liturgy; nothing more solemn, nothing more life-giving.”
  • [St. Philoxenos of Mabbug] "That is why we confess that we receive “the living body of the living God,” and not the ordinary body of a mortal human being, as well as “the living blood,” which grants life through all the holy sips we receive and not the ordinary blood of one corruptible human being among us. Indeed, that is what is preached by the heretics. And He did not call His body sanctified bread nor His holy blood mere wine, made great by a blessing; rather, He spoke about each of them truthfully: that they were His body and blood. “Jesus took the bread,” it says, “and blessed it, broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, ‘Take and eat – this is My own body, broken for you for the forgiveness of sins.’ He also took the cup, gave thanks over it and said, ‘Take, drink from this, all of you. This is My blood, which for you will be shed for the forgiveness of sins.’” He called the bread the body and the wine the blood, not those of some other person but His own."

Other Quotes

  • [Fr. Alexander Schmemann] "The only real fall of man is his non-eucharistic life in a non-eucharistic world."
  • [Fr. Alexander Schmemann] "But Christ did not come to us so that we may set apart a small segment of our life for our “religious obligations”. He claimed the whole of man and totality of this life. And he left with us the Sacrament of Communion with Himself so that it may sanctify and purify our whole existence and relate all aspects of our life to Him. A Christian is thus one who lives between: between the coming of Christ in the flesh and His return in glory to judge the quick and the dead; between the Eucharist and the Eucharist - the Sacrament of remembrance and the Sacrament of hope and anticipation.”
  • [Fr. Alexander Schmemann] "I propose we turn our attention to the Sacrament of the Eucharist and to the Church, whose very life flows from that Sacrament ... it is not reform, adjustments and modernization that are needed so much as a return to that vision and experience that from the beginning constituted the very life of the Church."

Syriac and Greek Words

  • Word (Syriac) - text


These icons are either approved for publication or the Curriculum Committee is in the process of gaining approval. If you do not see the icon you'd like to use for your writing, please submit the image to the Committee so that we can do the necessary follow-up.